This research is made possible thanks to the generosity and commitment of Pivotal Ventures, a Melinda French Gates company.

The staff and scholars at the Center for American Women and Politics (CAWP) were integral at various stages of this report’s development. Special thanks to Dr. Kira Sanbonmatsu, Jean Sinzdak, and Debbie Walsh for their expert input, guidance, and support from research design to execution and analysis. Each of them also conducted interviews for this project, making it possible for us to secure such a wide range of perspectives. Amy Benner, Michelle Irving, and India Lenear provided excellent research assistance, especially at the earliest stages of this project. Shikshya Adhikari contributed valuable data collection and analyses, in addition to providing helpful feedback across stages of this work.

It is not hyperbole to say that this report would have been impossible without the incredible commitment, skill, and contributions of Thu Nguyen. Thu served as the primary research assistant for this project for more than two years, critical to its organization, quality, and completion. Among her many contributions are the over 1,000 points of contact she made to secure and facilitate interviews with 192 political actors. These interviews are the heart of this report.

Finally, many thanks to our interview subjects who contributed their time and insights to our research. We are grateful to these political leaders for prioritizing speaking with us among the many demands on their time. Without them, this work would not be possible.